PDL::Func - useful functions |
PDL::Func - useful functions
use PDL::Func; use PDL::Math;
# somewhat pointless way to estimate cos and sin, # but is shows that you can thread if you want to # (and the library lets you) # my $obj = PDL::Func->init( Interpolate => "Hermite" ); # my $x = pdl( 0 .. 45 ) * 4 * 3.14159 / 180; my $y = cat( sin($x), cos($x) ); $obj->set( x => $x, y => $y, bc => "simple" ); # my $xi = pdl( 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 ); my $yi = $obj->interpolate( $xi ); # print "sin( $xi ) equals ", $yi->slice(':,(0)'), "\n"; sin( [0.5 1.5 2.5] ) equals [0.87759844 0.070737667 -0.80115622] # print "cos( $xi ) equals ", $yi->slice(':,(1)'), "\n"; cos( [0.5 1.5 2.5] ) equals [ 0.4794191 0.99768655 0.59846449] # print sin($xi), "\n", cos($xi), "\n"; [0.47942554 0.99749499 0.59847214] [0.87758256 0.070737202 -0.80114362]
This module aims to contain useful functions. Honest.
This module aims to provide a relatively-uniform interface
to the various interpolation methods available to PDL.
The idea is that a different interpolation scheme
can be used just by changing an attribute of a PDL::Func
object.
Some interpolation schemes (as exemplified by the SLATEC
library) also provide additional functionality, such as
integration and gradient estimation.
Throughout this documentation, $x
and $y
refer to the function
to be interpolated whilst $xi
and $yi
are the interpolated values.
The avaliable types, or schemes, of interpolation are listed below. Also given are the valid attributes for each scheme: the flag value indicates whether it can be set (s), got (g), and if it is required (r) for the method to work.
The valid attributes are:
Attribute Flag Description x sgr x positions of data y sgr function values at x positions err g error flag
The valid attributes are:
Attribute Flag Description x sgr x positions of data y sgr function values at x positions bc sgr boundary conditions g g estimated gradient at x positions err g error flag
Given the initial set of points (x,y)
, an estimate of the
gradient is made at these points, using the given boundary
conditions. The gradients are stored in the g
attribute,
accessible via:
$gradient = $obj->get( 'g' );
However, as this gradient is only calculated 'at the last moment',
g
will only contain data after one of
interpolate
, gradient
, or integrate
is used.
If your data is monotonic, and you are not too bothered about
edge effects, then the default value of bc
of simple
is for you.
Otherwise, take a look at the description of
PDL::Slatec::chic and use a hash reference
for the bc
attribute, with the following keys:
-5 .. 5
, as given for the ic
parameter
of chic.
The second element, only used if options 2, 1, -1, or 2
are chosen, contains the value of the vc
parameter.
Default = [ 0 ].
start
, but for the end of the data.
An example would be
$obj->set( bc => { start => [ 1, 0 ], end => [ 1, -1 ] } )
which sets the first derivative at the first point to 0, and at the last point to -1.
The status
method provides a simple mechanism to check if
the previous method was successful.
If the function returns an error flag, then it is stored
in the err
attribute.
To find out which routine was used, use the
routine
method.
$obj = PDL::Func->init( Interpolate => "Hermite", x => $x, y => $y ); $obj = PDL::Func->init( { x => $x, y => $y } );
Create a PDL::Func object, which can interpolate, and possibly integrate and calculate gradients of a dataset.
If not specified, the value of Interpolate is taken to be
Linear
, which means the interpolation is performed by
PDL::Primitive::interpolate.
A value of Hermite
uses piecewise cubic Hermite functions,
which also allows the integral and gradient of the data
to be estimated.
Options can either be provided directly to the method, as in the first example, or within a hash reference, as shown in the second example.
my $nset = $obj->set( x = $newx, $y => $newy ); my $nset = $obj->set( { x = $newx, $y => $newy } );
Set attributes for a PDL::Func object.
The return value gives the number of the supplied attributes which were actually set.
my $x = $obj->get( x ); my ( $x, $y ) = $obj->get( qw( x y ) );
Get attributes from a PDL::Func object.
Given a list of attribute names, return a list of
their values; in scalar mode return a scalar value.
If the supplied list contains an unknown attribute,
get
returns a value of undef
for that
attribute.
my $scheme = $obj->scheme;
Return the type of interpolation of a PDL::Func object.
Returns either Linear
or Hermite
.
my $status = $obj->status;
Returns the status of a PDL::Func object.
This method provides a high-level indication of
the success of the last method called
(except for get
which is ignored).
Returns 1 if everything is okay, 0 if
there has been a serious error,
and -1 if there
was a problem which was not serious.
In the latter case, $obj->get("err")
may
provide more information, depending on the
particular scheme in use.
my $name = $obj->routine;
Returns the name of the last routine called by a PDL::Func object.
This is mainly useful for decoding the value stored in the
err
attribute.
$obj->attributes; PDL::Func->attributes;
Print out the flags for the attributes of a PDL::Func object.
Useful in case the documentation is just too opaque!
PDL::Func->attributes; Flags Attribute SGR x SGR y G err
my $yi = $obj->interpolate( $xi );
Returns the interpolated function at a given set of points (PDL::Func).
A status value of -1, as returned by the status
method,
means that some of the $xi
points lay outside the
range of the data. The values for these points
were calculated by extrapolation (the details depend on the
scheme being used).
my $gi = $obj->gradient( $xi ); my ( $yi, $gi ) = $obj->gradient( $xi );
Returns the derivative and, optionally,
the interpolated function for the Hermite
scheme (PDL::Func).
my $ans = $obj->integrate( index => pdl( 2, 5 ) ); my $ans = $obj->integrate( x => pdl( 2.3, 4.5 ) );
Integrate the function stored in the PDL::Func
object, if the scheme is Hermite
.
The integration can either be between points of
the original x
array (index
), or arbitrary x values
(x
). For both cases, a two element piddle
should be given,
to specify the start and end points of the integration.
x
array.
If the status
method returns a value of -1, then
one or both of the integration limits did not
lie inside the x
array. Caveat emptor with the
result in such a case.
It should be relatively easy to provide an interface to other interpolation routines, such as those provided by the Gnu Scientific Library (GSL), or the B-spline routines in the SLATEC library.
In the documentation, the methods are preceeded by PDL::Func::
to avoid clashes with functions such as set
when using
the help
or apropos
commands within perldl.
Amalgamated PDL::Interpolate
and PDL::Interpolate::Slatec
to form PDL::Func
. Comments greatly appreciated on the
current implementation, as it is not too sensible.
Thanks to Robin Williams, Halldór Olafsson, and Vince McIntyre.
Robin is working on a new version, that improves on the current version a lot. No time scale though!
Copyright (C) 2000,2001 Doug Burke (dburke@cfa.harvard.edu) All rights reserved. There is no warranty. You are allowed to redistribute this software / documentation as described in the file COPYING in the PDL distribution.
PDL::Func - useful functions |