PDL::Image2D - Miscellaneous 2D image processing functions


PDL::Image2D - Miscellaneous 2D image processing functions


Miscellaneous 2D image processing functions - for want of anywhere else to put them


 use PDL::Image2D;



  Signature: (a(m,n); kern(p,q); [o]b(m,n); int opt)

2D convolution of an array with a kernel (smoothing)

For large kernels, using a FFT routine, such as fftconvolve() in PDL::FFT, will be quicker.

 $new = conv2d $old, $kernel, {OPTIONS}
 $smoothed = conv2d $image, ones(3,3), {Boundary => Reflect}
 Boundary - controls what values are assumed for the image when kernel
            crosses its edge:
            => Default  - periodic boundary conditions 
                          (i.e. wrap around axis)
            => Reflect  - reflect at boundary
            => Truncate - truncate at boundary


  Signature: (a(m,n); kern(p,q); [o]b(m,n); int opt)

2D median-convolution of an array with a kernel (smoothing)

Note: only points in the kernel >0 are included in the median, other points are weighted by the kernel value (medianing lots of zeroes is rather pointless)

 $new = med2d $old, $kernel, {OPTIONS}
 $smoothed = med2d $image, ones(3,3), {Boundary => Reflect}
 Boundary - controls what values are assumed for the image when kernel
            crosses its edge:
            => Default  - periodic boundary conditions (i.e. wrap around axis)
            => Reflect  - reflect at boundary
            => Truncate - truncate at boundary


  Signature: (a(m,n); [o]b(m,n); int __p_size; int __q_size; int opt)

2D median-convolution of an array in a pxq window (smoothing)

Note: this routine does the median over all points in a rectangular window and is not quite as flexible as med2d in this regard but slightly faster instead

 $new = med2df $old, $xwidth, $ywidth, {OPTIONS}
 $smoothed = med2df $image, 3, 3, {Boundary => Reflect}
 Boundary - controls what values are assumed for the image when kernel
            crosses its edge:
            => Default  - periodic boundary conditions (i.e. wrap around axis)
            => Reflect  - reflect at boundary
            => Truncate - truncate at boundary


  Signature: (a(n,m); [o] b(n,m); int wx; int wy; int edgezero)

fast 2D boxcar average

  $smoothim = $im->box2d($wx,$wy,$edgezero=1);

The edgezero argument controls if edge is set to zero (edgezero=1) or just keeps the original (unfiltered) values.

box2d should be updated to support similar edge options as conv2d and med2d etc.

Boxcar averaging is a pretty crude way of filtering. For serious stuff better filters are around (e.g., use conv2d with the appropriate kernel). On the other hand it is fast and computational cost grows only approximately linearly with window size.


  Signature: (a(m,n); int bad(m,n); [o]b(m,n))

patch bad pixels out of 2D images using a mask

 $patched = patch2d $data, $bad;

$bad is a 2D mask array where 1=bad pixel 0=good pixel. Pixels are replaced by the average of their non-bad neighbours; if all neighbours are bad, the original data value is copied across.


  Signature: (a(m,n); [o]b(m,n))

patch bad pixels out of 2D images containing bad values

 $patched = patchbad2d $data;

Pixels are replaced by the average of their non-bad neighbours; if all neighbours are bad, the output is set bad. If the input piddle contains no bad values, then a straight copy is performed (see patch2d).


  Signature: (a(m,n); [o]val(); int [o]x(); int[o]y())

Return value/position of maximum value in 2D image

Contributed by Tim Jeness


  Signature: (im(m,n); x(); y(); box(); [o]xcen(); [o]ycen())

Refine a list of object positions in 2D image by centroiding in a box

$box is the full-width of the box, i.e. the window is +/- $box/2.


  Signature: (a(m,n); [o]b(m,n))

Connected 8-component labeling of a binary image.

Connected 8-component labeling of 0,1 image - i.e. find seperate segmented objects and fill object pixels with object number

 $segmented = cc8compt( $image > $threshold );


  Signature: (int [o,nc] im(m,n); float ps(two=2,np); int col())

fill the area inside the given polygon with a given colour

This function works inplace, i.e. modifies im.


return the (dataflown) area of an image within a polygon

  # increment intensity in area bounded by $poly
  $im->polyfillv($pol)++; # legal in perl >= 5.6
  # compute average intensity within area bounded by $poly
  $av = $im->polyfillv($poly)->avg;


  Signature: (im(m,n); float angle(); bg(); int aa(); [o] om(p,q))

rotate an image by given angle

  # rotate by 10.5 degrees with antialiasing, set missing values to 7
  $rot = $im->rot2d(10.5,7,1);

This function rotates an image through an angle between -90 and + 90 degrees. Uses/doesn't use antialiasing depending on the aa flag. Pixels outside the rotated image are set to bg.

Code modified from pnmrotate (Copyright Jef Poskanzer) with an algorithm based on ``A Fast Algorithm for General Raster Rotation'' by Alan Paeth, Graphics Interface '86, pp. 77-81.

Use the rotnewsz function to find out about the dimension of the newly created image

  ($newcols,$newrows) = rotnewsz $oldn, $oldm, $angle;


  Signature: (I(n,m); O(q,p))

Bilineary maps the first piddle in the second. The interpolated values are actually added to the second piddle which is supposed to be larger than the first one.


  Signature: (I(n,m); O(q,p))

The first piddle is rescaled to the dimensions of the second (expandind or meaning values as needed) and then added to it.


Find the best-fit 2D polynomial to describe a coordinate transformation.

  ( $px, $py ) = fitwarp2d( $x, $y, $u, $v, $nf. { options } )

Given a set of points in the output plane ($u,$v), find the best-fit (using singular-value decomposition) 2D polynomial to describe the mapping back to the image plane ($x,$y). The order of the fit is controlled by the $nf parameter (the maximum power of the polynomial is $nf - 1), and you can restrict the terms to fit using the FIT option.

$px and $py are np by np element piddles which describe a polynomial mapping (of order np-1) from the output (u,v) image to the input (x,y) image:

  x = sum(j=0,np-1) sum(i=0,np-1) px(i,j) * u^i * v^j
  y = sum(j=0,np-1) sum(i=0,np-1) py(i,j) * u^i * v^j

The transformation is returned for the reverse direction (ie output to input image) since that is what is required by the warp2d() routine. The applywarp2d() routine can be used to convert a set of $u,$v points given $px and $py.


  FIT     - which terms to fit? default ones(byte,$nf,$nf)
  THRESH  - in svd, remove terms smaller than THRESH * max value
            default is 1.0e-5
FIT allows you to restrict which terms of the polynomial to fit: only those terms for which the FIT piddle evaluates to true will be evaluated. If a 2D piddle is sent in, then it is used for the x and y polynomials; otherwise $fit->slice(":,:,(0)") will be used for $px and $fit->slice(":,:,(1)") will be used for $py.

Remove all singular values whose valus is less than THRESH times the largest singular value.

The number of points must be at least equal to the number of terms to fit ($nf*$nf points for the default value of FIT).

  # points in original image
  $x = pdl( 0,   0, 100, 100 );
  $y = pdl( 0, 100, 100,   0 );
  # get warped to these positions
  $u = pdl( 10, 10, 90, 90 );
  $v = pdl( 10, 90, 90, 10 );
  # shift of origin + scale x/y axis only
  $fit = byte( [ [1,1], [0,0] ], [ [1,0], [1,0] ] );
  ( $px, $py ) = fitwarp2d( $x, $y, $u, $v, 2, { FIT => $fit } );
  print "px = ${px}py = $py";
  px = 
   [-12.5  1.25]
   [    0     0]
  py = 
   [-12.5     0]
   [ 1.25     0]
  # Compared to allowing all 4 terms
  ( $px, $py ) = fitwarp2d( $x, $y, $u, $v, 2 );
  print "px = ${px}py = $py";
  px = 
   [         -12.5           1.25]
   [  1.110223e-16 -1.1275703e-17]
  py = 
   [         -12.5  1.6653345e-16]
   [          1.25 -5.8546917e-18]


Transform a set of points using a 2-D polynomial mapping

  ( $x, $y ) = applywarp2d( $px, $py, $u, $v )

Convert a set of points (stored in 1D piddles $u,$v) to $x,$y using the 2-D polynomial with coefficients stored in $px and $py. See fitwarp2d() for more information on the format of $px and $py.


  Signature: (img(m,n); double px(np,np); double py(np,np); [o] warp(m,n); { options })

Warp a 2D image given a polynomial describing the reverse mapping.

  $out = warp2d( $img, $px, $py, { options } );

Apply the polynomial transformation encoded in the $px and $py piddles to warp the input image $img into the output image $out.

The format for the polynomial transformation is described in the documentation for the fitwarp2d() routine.

At each point x,y, the closest 16 pixel values are combined with an interpolation kernel to calculate the value at u,v. The interpolation is therefore done in the image, rather than Fourier, domain. By default, a tanh kernel is used, but this can be changed using the KERNEL option discussed below (the choice of kernel depends on the frequency content of the input image).

The routine is based on the warping command from the Eclipse data-reduction package - see http://www.eso.org/eclipse/ - and for further details on image resampling see Wolberg, G., ``Digital Image Warping'', 1990, IEEE Computer Society Press ISBN 0-8186-8944-7).

Currently the output image is the same size as the input one, which means data will be lost if the transformation reduces the pixel scale. This will (hopefully) be changed soon.

  $img = rvals(byte,501,501);
  imag $img, { JUSTIFY => 1 };
  # use a not-particularly-obvious transformation:
  #   x = -10 + 0.5 * $u - 0.1 * $v 
  #   y = -20 + $v - 0.002 * $u * $v
  $px  = pdl( [ -10, 0.5 ], [ -0.1, 0 ] );
  $py  = pdl( [ -20, 0 ], [ 1, 0.002 ] );
  $wrp = warp2d( $img, $px, $py );
  # see the warped image
  imag $warp, { JUSTIFY => 1 };

The options are:

  KERNEL - default value is tanh
  NOVAL  - default value is 0

KERNEL is used to specify which interpolation kernel to use (to see what these kernels look like, use the warp2d_kernel() routine). The options are:

Hyperbolic tangent: the approximation of an ideal box filter by the product of symmetric tanh functions.

For a correctly sampled signal, the ideal filter in the fourier domain is a rectangle, which produces a sinc interpolation kernel in the spatial domain:
  sinc(x) = sin(pi * x) / (pi * x)

However, it is not ideal for the 4x4 pixel region used here.

This is the square of the sinc function.

Although defined differently to the tanh kernel, the result is very similar in the spatial domain. The Lanczos function is defined as
  L(x) = sinc(x) * sinc(x/2)  if abs(x) < 2
       = 0                       otherwise

This kernel is derived from the following function:
  H(x) = a + (1-a) * cos(2*pi*x/(N-1))  if abs(x) < 0.5*(N-1)
       = 0                                 otherwise

with a = 0.5 and N currently equal to 2001.

This kernel uses the same H(x) as the Hann filter, but with a = 0.54.

NOVAL gives the value used to indicate that a pixel in the output image does not map onto one in the input image.


Return the specified kernel, as used by warp2d

  ( $x, $k ) = warp2d_kernel( $name )

The valid values for $name are the same as the KERNEL option of warp2d().

  line warp2d_kernel( "hamming" );


Copyright (C) Karl Glazebrook 1997 with additions by Robin Williams (rjrw@ast.leeds.ac.uk), Tim Jeness (timj@jach.hawaii.edu), and Doug Burke (burke@ifa.hawaii.edu)

All rights reserved. There is no warranty. You are allowed to redistribute this software / documentation under certain conditions. For details, see the file COPYING in the PDL distribution. If this file is separated from the PDL distribution, the copyright notice should be included in the file.

 PDL::Image2D - Miscellaneous 2D image processing functions