Email::Send::Test - Captures emails sent via Email::Send for testing


Email::Send::Test - Captures emails sent via Email::Send for testing


  # Load as normal
  use Email::Send;
  use Email::Send::Test;
  # Always clear the email trap before each test to prevent unexpected
  # results, and thus spurious test results.
  ### BEGIN YOUR CODE TO BE TESTED (example follows)
  my $sender = Email::Send->new({ mailer => 'Test' });
  $sender->send( $message );
  # Check that the number and type (and content) of mails
  # matched what you expect.
  my @emails = Email::Send::Test->emails;
  is( scalar(@emails), 1, 'Sent 1 email' );
  isa_ok( $emails[0], 'Email::MIME' );


Email::Send::Test is a driver for use in testing applications that use the Email::Send manpage to send email.

To be able to use it in testing, you will need some sort of configuration mechanism to specify the delivery method to be used, or some other way that in your testing scripts you can convince your code to use ``Test'' as the mailer, rather than ``Sendmail'' or another real mailer.

How does it Work

Email::Send::Test is a trap for emails. When an email is sent, it adds the emails to an internal array without doing anything at all to them, and returns success to the caller.

If your application sends one email, there will be one in the trap. If you send 20, there will be 20, and so on.

A typical test will involve doing running some code that should result in an email being sent, and then checking in the trap to see if the code did actually send out the email.

If you want you can get the emails out the trap and examine them. If you only care that something got sent you can simply clear the trap and move on to your next test.

The Email Trap

The email trap is a simple array fills with whatever is sent.

When you send an email, it is pushed onto the end of the array. You can access the array directly if you wish, or use the methods provided.


send $message

As for every other the Email::Send manpage mailer, send takes the message to be sent.

However, in our case there are no arguments of any value to us, and so they are ignored.

It is worth nothing that we do NOTHING to check or alter the email. For example, if we are passed undef it ends up as is in the trap. In this manner, you can see exactly what was sent without any possible tampering on the part of the testing mailer.

Of course, this doesn't prevent any tampering by Email::Send itself :)

Always returns true.


The emails method is the prefered and recommended method of getting access to the email trap.

In list context, returns the content of the trap array as a list.

In scalar context, returns the number of items in the trap.


The clear method resets the trap, emptying it.

It is recommended you always clear the trap before each test to ensure any existing emails are removed and don't create a spurious test result.

Always returns true.


This method returns a list of arrayrefs, one for each call to send that has been made. Each arrayref is in the form:

  [ $mailer, $email, \@rest ]

The first element is the invocant on which send was called. The second is the email that was given to send. The third is the rest of the arguments given to send.


All bugs should be filed via the CPAN bug tracker at

For other issues, or commercial enhancement or support, contact the author.


Current maintainer: Ricardo SIGNES, <>.

Original author: Adam Kennedy <>,


Copyright (c) 2004 - 2005 Adam Kennedy. All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.

 Email::Send::Test - Captures emails sent via Email::Send for testing